The pH of the effluent, de-ashed sugar solution, was 6.
This solution was inoculated with E. The resulting solution was sterile, demineralized and substantially free from silver ions to the 1 N NaCl test described above. The silver resin was prepared as described in Example I, except that cation-exchange resin a product made under U. Patent 2,, was used, and was contained in a column 2.
The foregoing examples have been selected for purposes of illustration and are not intended to suggest limitations not otherwise described or set forth in the claims.
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It will be apparent that this process lends itself to various modifications Without departing from the scope of the invention. For instance, liquids which are available in a demineralized condition, such as rain water, do not require-a preliminary demineralization treatment, but may be contacted directly with the silver exchanger for sterilization. It will further be understood that, although the cation resin in the silver form is referred to conveniently as a silver exchanger, a criterion.
It is contemplated that the process of this invention may be carried out in a mixed bed of hydrogen exchanger, hydroxyl exchanger and silver exchanger, especially where the exchangers are expendable, for the regeneration of such a bed is unnecessarily difiicult. A more convenient apparatus, shown in the drawing, consists of a column [0 containing an upper bed [2 of hydrogen resin and hydroxyl resin, either mixed or separate shown as separate. The beds are separated by foraminous partitions In such an apparatus the solution enters through a conduit l6 communicating with the top of the column [0 and flows first through a demineralizing section of hydrogen exchanger and hydroxyl exchanger, and finally through the sterilizing section of silver exchanger and discharges through the conduit [8 provided at the bottom of the column.
water treatment ion exchange generality - Degremont®
The segregation of the exchangers facilitates their removal from the column for separate regeneration. Where a bed of mixed hydrogen exchanger and hydroxyl exchanger is used, the exchangers may be of different densities so that they may be separated for regeneration by a flotation process, as described in Ion Exchange Resins, page et seq. The method of preparing substantially demineralized and sterile liquids comprising substantially demineralizing the liquid by means of a hydrogen exchanger and a hydroxyl exchanger 5 to the extent of less than 50 p.
The method of sterilizing aqueous solutions comprising reducing the content of dissolved ionized substances to less than 50 p. The method of sterilizing aqueous liquids having less than 50 p. Chem; Feb. Often the organic -substances in, for example, aqueous solution, are susceptible to decomposition by the action of bacterial or other micro-organisms.
Patent 2,, Particularly satisfactory strongly acid exchangers may be based upon cross-linked sulfonated polystyrenes; and satisfactory weakly acid exchangers may be a polymethacrylic acid exchanger having carboxylic acid groups as the principal active groups. USA en. Microbiocidal macroreticular ion exchange resins, their method of preparation and use. Process for removing iodide compounds from carboxylic acids and carboxylic acid anhydrides. USB2 en.
EPA1 en. Amino acids are also known as aminocarboxylic acids and as their name implies, amino acids contain both an amino group and a carboxylic group and, hence, show an amphoteric property, having an ion-exchange capacity for both cations and anions.
- ion exchange mechanism.
- Ion-exchange resin.
- AMBER Series;
Therefore, if an immobilized amino acid is used as a packing material in the demineralizing compartment of an electrically regenerable demineralizing apparatus, the need for packing both a cation exchanger and an anion exchanger is eliminated. Substrates having amino acids immobilized thereon are most typically used as beads. Although beads can be used, the aforementioned problems associated with the bead shape cannot be solved, so it is preferred to use amino acid immobilizing substrates in a fibrous or reticular form.
Since radiation-initiated graft polymerization provides fairly great latitude in the selection of substrates shape, it is an immobilization technique that can advantageously be used for the purposes of the present invention. In monofilaments having amino acids immobilized by radiation-initiated graft polymerization, ion channels are insured as continuous entities that extend from one ion exchange membrane to an adjacent one and consistent water treatment can be achieved to provide good quality.
Selection of fiber diameter and packing density depends on various factors such as flow rate, pressure loss and current efficiency and a suitable substrate may be selected or a selected substrates may be further processed. An exemplary method for immobilizing amino acids using radiation-initiated graft polymerization comprises grafting a polymerizable monomer containing epoxy groups which are highly reactive with amino groups and thereafter reacting said monomer with an amino acid.
Common examples of the polymerizable monomer containing epoxy groups include but are not limited to glycidyl acrylate and glycidyl methacrylate. Besides the polymerizable monomer containing epoxy groups, any polymerizable monomers that permit introduction of amino acids can also be used.
Amino acids are classified as a neutral amino acid, a basic amino acid or an acidic amino acid depending upon the relative proportions of two functional groups, an amino group and a carboxyl group, and a suitable amino acid can be selected in accordance with various factors such as use. It is also possible to use polyamino acids. The present inventors previously proposed a method in which a cation exchanger and an anion exchanger produced separately by radiation-initiated graft polymerization were loaded in the demineralizing compartment. However, this method required that both types of ion-exchange groups cation and anion exchange groups be dispersed uniformly and that the ion exchangers be molded into an appropriate form that would not cause undue increase in pressure loss.
According to the present invention, both types of ion-exchange groups are dispersed uniformly, so one only need to select a suitable substrate in consideration of several factors including the quality of water to be treated and the required quality of product water, as well as the flow rate for treatment and the pressure loss, and the need for molding the ion exchanger into an appropriate form is eliminated.
The following examples are provided for the purpose of further illustrating the present invention but are in no way to be taken as limiting. The thus obtained fibers were weak acidic cation-exchange fibers having an ion-exchange capacity of 4. The two types of ion-exchange fibers were processed as shown in FIG. The demineralizing compartment was composed of 10 cells and only one of them was used in the experiment. The net used as a spacer between membranes was cut off. Artificial raw water prepared by dissolving NaCl in pure water and adjusting its conductivity to ca.
The treated water had an electric resistance of Thus, the equipment constructed in Example 1 performed satisfactorily as an electrically regenerable demineralizing apparatus. The ion-exchange fibers prepared in example 1 were processed as shown in FIG. Placed between adjacent bundles of those processed ion-exchange fibers were 10 mol by wet volume each of two conventional ion-exchange resins, i. A fabric thus prepared was packed in the demineralizing compartment of an experimental electrodialyzing vessel as in Example 1.
US5308467A - Electrically regenerable demineralizing apparatus - Google Patents
The other conditions of experiment were the same as in Example 1. Compared to Example 1, the apparatus of Example 2 produced a high resistance to water passage but the quality of the treated water was almost the same Thus, the equipment constructed in Example 2 also performed satisfactorily as an electrically regenerable demineralizing apparatus. A nonwoven fabric having an areal density of ca.
A polypropylene net of substantially the same shape as the spacer net of the experimental electrodialyzing vessel Model CS-0 of Asahi Glass Co. The thus obtained fibers comprised a weak acidic cation-exchange net having an ion-exchange capacity of 4. Two sheets of each type of net were packed in the demineralizing compartment of an experimental electrodialyzing vessel Model CS-0 of Asahi Glass Co. The spacer net originally fitted in the demineralizing compartment of the experimental electrodialyzing vessel used in Example 1 was used unaltered to treat raw water that was prepared by dissolving NaCl in pure water and adjusting its conductivity to ca.
The treated water had a conductivity of 1. The spacer net originally fitted in the demineralizing compartment of the experimental electrodialyzing vessel used in Example 1 was mixed with 5 ml by wet volume of each of a strong acidic cation-exchange resin "Dia-ion SKIB" and a strong basic anion-exchange resin "Dia-ion SA10A" in such a way that they were distributed evenly.
An experiment of water treatment was conducted under the same conditions as in Example 1. The spacer is placed between a cation- and an anion-exchange membrane in order to help water to be dispersed effectively and to insure that the two membranes will not contact each other. As one can see from the results of Examples and Comparative Examples 1 and 2, water can be treated to high purity in a very simple way in accordance with the present invention by using a spacer formed of ion-exchange fibers produced by radiation-initiated graft polymerization or introducing ion-exchange groups through radiation-initiated graft polymerization into the net per se that is used as the spacer see Example 4.
The use of conventional ion-exchange resins has also involved several problems as typified by the leakage of resins and the difficulty in achieving a uniform dispersion. In this respect, the present invention has the advantage of not only facilitating the production of equipment but also insuring consistent and effective treatment of water for a prolonged time. Then, the same shielding member was replaced over the nonwoven fabric in such a way that it would just high those areas where acrylic acid was grafted, and the fabric was showered with accelerated electron beams under the same conditions as described above.
This nonwoven fabric was packed in the demineralizing compartment of an experimental electrodialyzing vessel and raw water was supplied under the same conditions as in Example 1. Thus, the equipment constructed in Example 5 performed satisfactorily as an electrically regenerable demineralizing apparatus. A nonwoven fabric of the same type as used in Example 5 was showered with accelerated electron beams and subjected to graft polymerization under the same conditions as in Example 5, except that trimethylamine was used in the amination step to achieve conversion to a quaternary ammonium salt.
- USA - Method of and apparatus for sterilizing liquids - Google Patents.
- Demineralization by ion exchange in water treatment and chemical processing of other liquids.
- Produkten hittades inte.
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- Ion exchange systems;
- Frommers Europe?
This nonwoven fabric was loaded in the demineralizing compartment of an experimental electrodialyzing vessel and raw water was fed in under the same conditions as in Example 1. The obtained fabric had glycine immobilized in an amount of 1. This nonwoven fabric was loaded in the demineralizing compartment of an experimental electrodialyzing vessel of the same type as used in Example 1 and raw water was supplied under the same conditions as in Example 1.
Thus the equipment constructed in Example 7 performed satisfactorily as an electrically regenerable demineralizing apparatus. The obtained sheet had phenylalanine immobilized in an amount of 1. This sheet was loaded in the demineralizing compartment of an experimental electrodialyzing vessel of the same type as used in Example 1 and raw water was supplied under the same conditions as in Example 1.
The conventional electrically regenerable demineralizing apparatus has beads of ion-exchange resins packed in the demineralizing compartment, so it has suffered from disadvantages in many aspects such as maintenance and management, the use of large equipment and the consistency of water treatment. In contrast, the apparatus of the present invention eliminates the need for packing a cation and an anion exchanger as separate entities and water of high purity can be obtained by treatment with a single type of nonwoven fabric which carries both cation- and anion-exchange groups.
Accordingly, not only is it possible to construct demineralizing equipment of a simple design but its size can be easily increased, thereby eliminating many of the problems of the prior art. Effective date : Year of fee payment : 4. Year of fee payment : 8. Year of fee payment : The improved electrically regenerable demineralizing apparatus uses ion exchangers that are produced by radiation-initiated graft polymerization and that are packed in the demineralizing compartment of an electrodialyzer.
The apparatus may use a mosaic ion exchanger that consists of alternately arranged cation- and anion-exchange groups. Alternately, the apparatus may have an immobilized amino acid packed in the demineralizing compartment of an electrodialyzer.